For your information, a study entitled “Associations of Dietary Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose with β–cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, and Type 2 Diabetes in the Maastricht Study” by den Biggelaar et al. was recently published in Nutrients. The purpose of the study was to determine associations between glucose, fructose, and sucrose intakes with β–cell Function (BCF), insulin sensitivity, prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
den Biggelaar et al. extrapolated data from 2818 participants aged 40-75 years living in the southern part of The Netherlands participating in the Maastricht Study, an observational prospective population based cohort study..
Glucose metabolism status was determined by an oral glucose tolerance test. Plasma insulin and C-peptide were also measured. Glucose metabolism was defined as normal glucose metabolism (NGM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or T2DM. BCF was determined by β–cell glucose sensitivity, the potentiation factor ratio, β–cell rate sensitivity, C-peptidogenic index and the ration of the C-peptide to glucose area under the curve. The Matsuda index was used to measure insulin sensitivity. Dietary intake was assessed using the Dutch national Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) tool. Total energy intake and intakes glucose, fructose, and sucrose were calculated using the Dutch Food Composition Database. Intakes were organized into quintiles for analysis. Body weight, height, BMI, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure, blood lipid profiles, smoking status, physical activity levels, medication use, history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and history of cancer were all recorded and considered for statistical analysis. Model 1 adjusted for sex and age only. Model 2 adjusted for model 1 plus waist-to-hip ratio, education level, mean arterial blood pressure, CVD, anti-hypertensive medication, lipid-modifying medication, family history of T2DM, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and intake of total energy, dietary fiber, and alcohol.
den Biggelaar et al. report the following results:
o Note: analyses for BCF or insulin sensitivity as outcome measure were repeated after exclusion of individuals with previously diagnosed T2DM, due to possibility that they may have modified their diet
den Biggelaar et al. conclude that “In the fully adjusted models, a positive association of glucose, but not of fructose and sucrose intake, was found with insulin sensitivity…High glucose intake was associated with higher insulin sensitivity and a decreased odds of prediabetes, independent of dietary fibre. There is no convincing evidence for associations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake with BCF.”