World Health Organization Double Burden of Malnutrition series

Dynamics of the double burden of malnutrition and the changing nutrition reality

Barry M Popkin, Camila Corvalan, Laurence M Grummer-Strawn

Vol. 395, No. 10217

The first publication in the series provides an overview of the issue, and cites the factors that contribute to malnutrition. While LNCS is not mentioned, the article does cite the increased sales of “non-essential foods and beverages”, including “junk foods and sugar-sweetened beverages”. Rapid growth in this sector is especially noted in lower-income countries, where sales are already high. Overall, this paper takes a look at the impact of the food environment and the availability of non-nutritious foods and beverages.

The double burden of malnutrition: aetiological pathways and consequences for health

Jonathan C Wells, Ana Lydia Sawaya, Rasmus Wibaek, Martha Mwangome, Marios S Poullas, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Alessandro Demaio

Vol. 395, No. 10217

The second publication in the series describes how historically malnutrition has been studied separately as either “chronic or acute undernutrition, energy inadequacy, and micronutrient deficiencies” or “overweight, obesity, and dietary excess”. This paper also discusses early undernutrition preceding overweight or obesity later in life and the overall health consequences. LNCS are not mentioned in this paper.

Double-duty actions: seizing programme and policy opportunities to address malnutrition in all its forms

Corinna Hawkes, Marie T Ruel, Leah Salm, Bryony Sinclair, Francesco Branca

Vol. 395, No. 10218

The third publication in the series describes how “worldwide availability of unhealthy processed foods, snacks, and beverages high in energy, sugar, fat, and salt has soared since 2004.” It notes that “manufacturers, supermarkets, food vendors, and restaurants make these foods easily accessible and affordable, often using aggressive marketing techniques.” It goes on to discuss how previous attempts at addressing malnutrition/undernutrition unintentionally led to an increase in risk for obesity, overweight and diet-related NCDs in low- and middle income countries. Life nutrition, diet diversity, food environments and socioeconomic factors are cited. A holistic approach, including changes in governance, financing and capacity building, is suggested. LNCS are not mentioned in this paper.

Economic effects of the double burden of malnutrition

Rachel Nugent, Carol Levin, Jessica Hale, Brian Hutchinson

Vol. 395, No. 10218

The fourth and final paper in the series examined methods for conducting economic evaluations of malnutrition, identifies gaps, and recommends improvements to economic modeling.  Suggests that economic models are enhanced to incorporate effects for both undernutrition and overweight in the same population. LNCS are not mentioned in this paper.

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